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(a) Widows of France working as porters on French railroads. French women transferring luggage at a railway station near Paris. A great deal of this sort of work is being done by women, who not only act as porters but also fire and drive the engines. They are commonly known as widows of France. Every woman who has filled these positions has released a man for some labor which aids in bringing the war to a speedier and victorious termination, 7/21/1917. (b) Women replacing men in ammunition factories of France. One of the most important industries of the countries now at war is the manufacture of ammunition for the men at the front. The women have taken an active part in all the occuopations left vacant by the men who went to the aid of their country, but have been especially active in the munition factories. They are working hard in the new plants set up for making the messengers of death. The accompanying photogaph is but a common scene in France. The women are seen filling the shells with shrapnel in one of the factories at Chamond, 8/31/1915.